The advent of digital media has inspired many new forms of customer research which businesses are embracing with a passion. We have witnessed marketers foregoing more traditional approaches of gaining customer insights, primarily to generate cheaper and quicker results.
There are lots of myths, perceptions and misconceptions surrounding digital methods. As one mobile phone marketer commented ‘let’s say we don’t wholly buy into the claims being made about online’.
So what are the facts and considerations when choosing between traditional vs. digital market research methods? New doesn’t necessarily mean better …. or does it?
Traditional research methods
More traditional forms of research involve either face-to-face contact or verbal conversations in real-time such as;
- Qualitative focus groups or group discussions; enable topic discussion, exploration and idea generation, building and challenging. For example, recruiting respondents with differing views to ‘conflict groups’ in order to challenge beliefs and understand and uncover ways to overcome possible prejudices.
- Depth interviews – face-to-face or telephone; enable in-depth understanding of people, who they are, their attitudes, beliefs and motivations. Also suited to more confidential and sensitive topics e.g. healthcare, business-to-business.
- Accompanied shops – in a real-life shopping environment to understand real-life shopping motivations and behaviour.
- Ethnography – observing people in specific settings/environments. For example, a professional in their work environment; useful to see true context, influences and behaviour, that may be unconscious and not reported.
- Intercepts – stopping people in the street or other locations; useful for gaining high-level/fast insights, to understand motivations and quantify preferences, for example assessing reaction to products/brands in out-of-home eating establishments.
Traditional research pros and cons
Traditional face-to-face or telephone approaches enable the moderator to go with the natural flow of the discussion, understand what’s important to interviewees. Also to flex the discussion, intervene, probe and challenge at any point in the proceedings.
Findings or interpretations are based on respondent comments and non-verbal indicators such as facial expressions, body language, general behaviour and voice intonation. Albert H. Mehrabian found that body language accounts for 55%, tone of voice accounts for 38% and words only account for 7% of received communication (1). This non verbal communication provides extra richness and texture to information and gives deeper insight. What is not said is sometimes as revealing as what is said.
Traditional research approaches can consume more time and cost. They sometimes need more time to set up. For example recruiting a very specific sample, such as frequent rail and air travellers with experience of mobile applications could take a couple of weeks.
New digital research methods
The massive growth in general internet use and specifically social networking sites, enables marketers and researchers to communicate with their consumers digitally, and better understand the changing digital world. New digital functionality such as wikis, video filming and uploading and messaging provides researchers with a new means of customer communication, and new means of capturing information. This also helps researchers and customers collaborate and co-create ideas.
Main digital technology allows new digital research encounters
- Skype, Whats App and Facetime – provide new remote video interviewing possibilities, allowing the moderator to hear and see the interviewee.
- Wearables – like Google glasses provide real-time or recorded/edited insights through the eyes of consumers.
New online research methods
- Online surveys – respondents are posed a series of questions online. Typically having followed or been emailed a link. These are now well established in high Internet penetration Western markets. This enables rapid, cost-effective, multi-country quantitative research.
- Online focus groups – real-time online discussions over a set period e.g. 2 hours (so-called synchronous research); useful to reach remote/difficult to find respondents.
- Online communities – respondents join a community and are set topics to discuss and questions to answer, interacting with each other and the moderator. Useful for gauging reactions to communications and products, ‘pressure testing’ plans and building ideas.
- Bulletin boards – password protected forum, accessed via a browser, where respondents login at any time and respond to moderator led discussion. These usually last 3 to 6 days (so-called asynchronous research); useful for product placement, assessing first and later impressions/experiences, engaging the digitally savvy and exploring the digital world, and developing ideas.
New social media functions
- Social media sites e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram – useful for online and offline recruitment, dipstick research, gain anecdotes, perhaps at the start of a new product development process.
- Social media analytics – such as to assess national sentiments, for example, via ‘big data’ analysis of tweets etc. It also possible to analyse emotional response from emojis. In November 2016, social media analytics correctly predicted the outcome of the US Presidential election in contrast to the national polls.
Digital technology enables new analysis methods
- Facial recognition – uses software that’s more discerning than the human eye to determine emotional engagement (such as happiness, fear, surprise) with tv advertising, TV programmes or films. Enables better film editing and story-telling.
Digital research pros and cons
Some groups have particular affinity with the digital world and are easier to engage e.g. kids/youth market. The anonymity of the online world encourages participation and openness. Early technology adopters are useful to pressure-test new ideas and anticipate the future.
Some digital media offer an almost ‘instant’ sample. For example, polls on Facebook, Twitter or blogs. A high-number of engaged followers are needed to generate fast and cost-effective insights.
The growing range and extent of online communication, for example via smartphones, make it easier to reach a wide geographic target. Thus avoiding travel and sometimes communication costs. In-built cameras make it easier to collect visual or audio insights.
More complex technology, such as that involved in online qualitative research is a little more difficult to master. So allow time for set-up, to help respondents as well as moderate and analyse research. This means it is sometimes more expensive than face-to-face discussions.
Online moderation is more difficult. The process is often more linear and mechanical limiting ability to pursue all avenues of exploration. There are also visual limitations. Zoomed in head shots or screen size room views, make it difficult to see the big picture, and see non-verbal responses. Qualitative responses vary between the superficial and detailed. Initial superficial responses require more probing. In contrast, unduly verbose responses, especially if written, are time-consuming to follow and interpret.
Summary of traditional vs. digital research pros and cons
Digital methods can benefit the traditional research world and vice versa. Digital tools help automate research activities, for example, making some activities in the supply chain, such as recruitment, and fieldwork for quantitative, cheaper and quicker. For example, online is a fast and cost-effective way to recruit respondents for traditional qualitative research. It ensures broader reach, and helps mitigate against serial groupies.
However, there will always be a need for a moderator, to ease the journey of discovery and dig into the detail. Online moderation is just more difficult. Witness any radio let alone text discussion.
Online pre-planning also needs to be more exacting to make sure respondents are capable of accessing and using systems. And this has a time-cost.
Technology can also fail. As a result, some online qualitative approaches advocate running research with two people. One to manage the IT systems, and another to moderate the discussion.
Whichever method is used there is a need for human management and analysis. Particularly for qualitative, online costs can be higher than face-to-face.
The nature of the social media, means there is more and more data available for analysis. Analysis of social media big data has shown more accurate insights than conventional polls, such as on the outcomes of election results,
New hybrids that cross the lines of traditional and digital media offer the advantages of both worlds. For example, Skype is a boon for conducting remote face-to-face interviews to see and hear respondents.
- Digital media is a welcome addition to the market research tool box. It has created new ways to conduct research, providing complementary approaches to more traditional forms. Researchers and marketers would be foolish to ignore the opportunities that digital media provides, equally the merits of face-to-face research must be remembered. Those with long memories may recall the hype surrounding internet businesses in the late 1990s, and belief that these required a new way of thinking, only to find that many failed through forgetting basic marketing principles. As Simon Carter said recently, “Marketers are becoming lazy by over-using social media and ignoring the skills and disciplines traditionally learned by marketers” (2).
- The start-point for determining any research method is to start with objectives and requirements. Then fully assess the pros and cons of each method, to decide which is best.
- Best practice marketing requires a true understanding of customers and not technology. As Daryl Fielding, European Marketing Chief , Kraft Foods said recently, “Marketers must remember they are talking to people”(3). There is a danger of technology getting in the way of understanding. Also, perhaps ironically to digital advocates, ethnography is essential to understand how consumers use digital media!
- Try experimenting. If you don’t test new things out, you won’t learn. Just make sure it is not at the cost of, or detriment to achieving your objectives/desired outcomes.
(1) Mehrabian Albert H, ‘Silent Messages; Implicit Communication of Emotions and Attitudes’ 2nd edition 1981
(2) Carter Simon, Managing Director, Fujitsu ‘Back to basics’ Marketing Week & Research Live April 2011
(3) O’Reilly Lara ‘A blinkered digital vision makes marketers forget the customer’ Marketing Week 21 Oct 2011